Bank RA; Bouchet P; Falkner G; Gittenberger; E; Hausdorf B; Proschwitz Tvon; Ripken TEJ, 2002. Chevallier H, 1970. by Herbert, D. G.]. Lateral teeth with mesocone progessively more slender and elongate towards outer lateral field of radula; ectocone generally absent in 2nd or 3rd lateral tooth; endocone persisting to perhaps the 20th tooth. Malm AW, 1868. An annotated list of the non-marine mollusca of Britain and Ireland. Notes on South African non-marine Mollusca. Beckmann KH, 2007. http://www.ni.is/poddur/. 360 pp. Z. Morph. The Festivus, 33(7):75-78. Simone LRL, 2006. (Matériaux pour la faune malacologique du royaume de Pologne.) (Om ett par för Sverige nya, anthropochora landmollusker, Limax valentianus Férussac och Deroceras caruanae (Pollonera) jämte nagra andra, kulturbundna arter.) Pneumostome or breathing pore (the opening to the lung) – in right posterior margin of mantle shield. Fish and Wildlife Service, 9 pp. monensis (Rhyncosinapis monensis (L.) Dandy ex A.R. Folia Malacologica, 16(4):199-207. The Leopard Slug lives in the south and east of Australia and is common in urban areas. Ottawa, Canada: Parks Canada Agency, 8 + 39 pp. Terrestrial gastropods of the park in Obrzycko. Rollo suggested that this dispersal would be advantageous in transient field environments. Godwin-Austen HH, 1908. (e.g. 4 pp. 47-190. Castillejo J; Manga-Gonzalez MY, 1986. Leeds, UK: Taylor Brothers, 453 pp. Biocontrol Science and Technology, 13(1):119-125. [English title not available]. Springer, 141-198. Brockie RE, 1990. Synopses of the British fauna. and other slugs. [English title not available]. [Malacología Latinamericana.]. The land Gastropoda of the vicinity of Stockholm. The parasitic nematode Phasmarhabditis hermaphrodita has been developed as a biological control agent for pest slugs and snails in gardens and horticultural crops (Morand et al., 2004). Studies in the biodiversity and systematics of terrestrial organisms from the National Museum of Wales. Meet Chromodoris reticulata, a type of sea slug, that has to reckon with a scary reality: sex means saying goodbye to their penis. CLECOM Project Checklist of species-group taxa of continental Mollusca living in Austria (CLECOM section 1)., Sweden: Göteborgs Naturhistoriska Museum. The mollusc fauna of glasshouses in the Netherlands. (Die Nacktschnecken der portugiesisch-azorischen Fauna.) The slugs of Bulgaria (Arionidae, Milacidae, Limacidae, Agriolimacidae - Gastropoda Stylommatophora). There are no published records of deliberate introductions of L. maximus to areas outside its native range. 38: 253 pp. Forcart L, 1965. Or so it seems for the echidna, a spiny egg-laying mammal, which has evolved a four-headed penis. Szybiak K, 2004. [English title not available]. Natural infection of land-snails by protostrongylids on a pasture grazed by sheep in the Rabat area of Morocco. The Nautilus, 72(3):85-89. Icelandic land and freshwater Mollusca. Unlike other species that use a similar process—butterflies, mites, beetles—males of these species don’t have a similar penetrative organ, only the females do, says Willingham. The lack of host-specificity largely negates the potential use of P. hermaphrodita outside its native European range, although the discovery of the nematode in other parts of the world, as an adventive, continues to stimulate commercial interests. (Babosas de la Península Ibérica y Baleares. Those in rougher waters have shorter, stouter penises, while those in calmer areas have long, slender penises. Mitteilungen aus dem Zoologischen Museum in Berlin, 30:54-95. Hubricht L, 1972. Graeff-Teixera C; Thiengo SC; Thome JW; Medeiros AB; Camillo-Coura L; Agostini AA, 1993. Nachrichtsblatt der Deutschen Malakozoologischen Gesellschaft, 32:77-85, 97-107. NatureServe Explorer Comprehensive Species Reports. CLECOM Project Checklist of species-group taxa of continental Mollusca living in Luxembourg (CLECOM section 1)., Sweden: Göteborgs Naturhistoriska Museum, 13 pp. Nonetheless, there is little published information of the consequence of L. maximus colonization on nutrient cycling in forests and woods.L. In: Folia Malacologica, 15 (2) 83-93. Biblia Naturae; sive historia insectorum, in classes certas redacta, nec non exemplis, et anatomico variorum animalculorum examine, aeneisque tabulis illustrata. [Fauna Graeciae 8.]. Land snail survey of the Black Hills National Forest, South Dakota and Wyoming, summary report 1991-2001. Spotted leopard slugs can be found in locations such as woodlands and fields, as well as in park lands and in the gardens of people's homes. The malacofauna of the Little Carpathians from the viewpoint of country development. Valdovinos C; Olmos V; Moya C, 2006. List of the land snails (Mollusca: Gastropoda) of Croatia, with recommendations for their Croatian names. Graells MP, 1846. Stomach a simple curvature, with 2 ducts to digestive gland. Recent terrestrial and freshwater molluscs of Rio Grande do Sul State, RS, southern Brazil region: a comprehensive synthesis and check list. Although not yet confirmed, L. maximus is probably included among intermediate hosts. [English title not available]. Blue whale penises range between eight and ten feet, ... That is certainly the case for the leopard slug, which is so well-endowed that it has to go to extreme measures to reproduce. Canadian Journal of Forest Research, 39(12):2299-2306. http://cjfr.nrc.ca, Moss M; Hermanutz L, 2010. Altieri MA; Hagen KS; Trujillo J; Caltagirone LE, 1982. (Dano de la babosa del frijol y su control en El Salvador). Chichester LF; Getz LL, 1969. The Nautilus, 63(3):99-105. Uncommon, but present in natural habitat, Oahu; Maui; Hawaii; Waiahinu; Furthermore, species such as L. maximus are important consumers of macrofungi and probably influence decomposition and nutrient cycling through dispersal of fungal spores and hyphae. In: Abstracts of the 9th World Congress of Malacology, Antwerp, Belgium. Dordrecht, Netherlands: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 243-255. of warmest month < 10°C and > 0°C), Dispersed as contaminant of soil, farm produce, Accidental transport with vegetation and soil, Accidental transport with vegetables and some fruits, Accidental transport with vegetation, soil, machinery and packaging, Accidental transport with logs, soil, machinery and packaging, Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye, Stems (above ground)/Shoots/Trunks/Branches, CR (IUCN red list: Critically endangered), Tolerates, or benefits from, cultivation, browsing pressure, mutilation, fire etc, Capable of securing and ingesting a wide range of food, Benefits from human association (i.e. Species composition of the land snails' fauna of Belarus. St. John's, Newfoundland, Canada: Memorial University of Newfoundland. Journal of Conchology, 41(2):263-265. Diversity and durability: responses of the Madeiran and Porto-Santan snail faunas to natural and human-induced environmental change. Bole J, Slapnik R, 1997. [English title not available]. Catalog of introduced molluscs of eastern North America (North of Mexico). [English title not available]. An annotated list of the non-marine mollusca of Britain and Ireland. Gould AA; Binney WG, 1870. Irakleio, Greece: Natural History Museum of Crete, Hellenic Zoological Society. Vitrea contracta (Westerlund) and other introduced land mollusks in Lynnwood, Washington. Wallingford, UK: CABI, CABI, Undated b. CABI Compendium: Status as determined by CABI editor. In: Folia Malacologica, 21 (3) 175-181. Terrestrial Mollusca of Nova Scotia: in the footsteps of John Robert Willis 1825-1876. CLECOM Project Checklist of species-group taxa of continental Mollusca living in Ireland and United Kingdom (CLECOM section 1)., Sweden: Göteborgs Naturhistoriska Museum, 16 pp. Where have Leopard Slug's been seen so far? [English title not available]. Transactions of the American Microscopical Society, 80:399-406. To prevent species such as L. maximus from spreading, public education can raise awareness to reduce human mediated spread, coupled with robust border inspection and quarantine procedures. : Arionacea, Zonitacea, Ariophantacea si Helicacea ([English title not available]). (Elenco dei molluschi terrestri e d'acqua dolce del Veneto.) Description. by Borges, P. A. V. \Cunha, R. \Gabriel, R. \Martins, A. F. \Silva, L. \Vieira, V.]. Fróðskaparrit, 61:191-209. Howarth FG; Preston D; Moretzsohn F; McShane M, 2003. 179 pp. 1-25 + 1-239, 1-17 pp. Sysoev A, Schileyko A, 2009. Müller OF, 1774. Falkner G, Ripken TEJ, Falkner M, 2002. L. maximus will feed on living plants and is capable of inflicting significant damage to garden plants. Northeastern Naturalist, 7(1):233-88. Schriften zur Malakozoologie, 17:9-28. Wiktor A, 1982. Caziot E, 1910. by Borges PAV, Cunha R, Gabriel R, Martins AF, Silva L, Vieira V]. As in other pulmonates (Peake, 1978), there is considerable intraspecific variation in the size of L. maximus at hatching and this strongly influences subsequent development, even amongst individuals hatched from the same batch of eggs (Prior, 1983).Activity Patterns, L. maximus is generally a solitary, ground-dwelling animal (Cook and Radford, 1988). Postepy w Ochronie Roslin, 52(4):1129-1135. But the species is also adventive in many significant wild places internationally, including but not limited to Východné Karpaty Biosphere Reserve, Slovakia-Poland-Ukraine; Uglya Biosphere Reserve, Ukraine; Tongariro National Park and Egmont National Park, New Zealand; Tasmanian Wilderness World Heritage Area and Mount Field National Park (Tasmania), Lord Howe Island Group World Heritage Site (Lord Howe), Australia; Hakalua Forest National Wildlife Refuge and Haleakala National Park, Hawaiian Islands; Redwood National Park (California), Indiana Dunes National Lakeshore (Indiana), Glacier National Park (Montana), Black Hills National Forest (South Dakota), Olympic National Park (Washington), Mount Ranier National Park (Washington), Shenandoah National Park (Virginia) USA. These inundative approaches have primarily focused on the rhabiditid nematode Phasmarhabditis hermaphrodita (Morand et al. Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide. Fauna Europaea Project. The zoogeography and ecology of arionid and limacid slugs introduced into northeastern North America. While documented impacts are generally considered negative (but some view L. maximus as positive in domestic gardens because of its assumed predation of pest slugs), any changes in ecosystem properties directly attributable to the species have been minor or just one small component of multiple drivers influencing the system.L. Band 3: Mollusca. Berichte der Naturforschenden Gesellschaft der Oberlausitz, 23:43-57. http://www.naturforschende-gesellschaft-der-oberlausitz.de/Publikationen. Stuttgart, Germany: G. Fischer. Sterkiana, 45:34-35. The introduced terrestrial mollusca of South Africa [ed. Lutz L, 1950. by Barker GM]. Parte 1A, Parte 2A ([English title not available]). As hermaphrodites, these slugs inseminate each other during sex so, once the action starts, two penises are on display. Vagina absent. Agudo-Padrón AI, 2009. Proceedings of a Symposium, University of Kent, Canterbury, UK, 24-26 September 1996., 333-334. Simone LRL, 2006. deel. 12 pp. [MSc thesis. After sex, they shed their single-use penis into the ocean’s abyss. Observations on the distribution of land snails in the woods of the IJsselmeer polders. Anzeiger für Schädlingskde, 24:87-91. List of Molluscs. They don't have a visible shell, because like their cousins the cuttlefish their shell is internal as a form of structural support. Grimm FW, 1971. (De Landslakken van Nederland.) South A, 1965. Report on the invertebrates of Massachusetts, second edition. Final report to the USDA Forest Service. show all records The slugs of Florida (Gastropoa: Pulmonata). (Somogy megye puhatestü (Mollusca) faunája). The zoogeography and ecology of arionid and limacid slugs introduced into northeastern North America. Catalogo dei Molluschi terrestri e fluviatili viventi in Venezia e nel suo estuario ecc ([English title not available]). Karlin EJ; Bacon C, 1960. http://www.plosone.org/article/info%3Adoi%2F10.1371%2Fjournal.pone.0094969. Terrestrial snails and slugs (Mollusca: Gastropoda) of Maine. Histoire naturelle générale et particulière des mollusques terrestres et fluviatiles, tant des espèces que l'on trouve aujourd'hui vivantes, que des dépouilles fossiles de celles qui n'existent plus; classés d'après les caractères essentiels que présentent ces animaux et leurs coquilles ([English title not available]). Their spotting starts by their head and travels all the way down their body. 1998, Hemphillia dromedarius (dromedary jumping-slug), http://ipp.boku.ac.at/private/wf/Check_List_of_Austrian_Mollusca.html, http://www.livinglandscapes.bc.ca/upperfraserbasin/ufb-snails/UFB-Snails.pdf, http://explorer.natureserve.org/servlet/NatureServe, http://www.tsusinvasives.org/database/leopard-slug.html, Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License. (Bemerkungen zu der Nacktschnecken-Fauna Bulgariens). [English title not available]. Folia Malacologica, 12(2):73-77. Within these areas, they tend to gravitate to dead trees or rotting logs, or else hide under rocks, since these offer the damp conditions and shade a spotted leopard slug requires. Why slugs squabble. Canberra, Australia: Autralian National University Press, 285 pp. Guernsey M, 1912. Free muscle system: Cephalic retractor attached on dorsal body wall a little posterior to pallial complex and passing forwards before dividing into left and right tentacle retractors; buccal retractor arising as a branch from stem or from left tentacle retractor; second anterior loop of intestine passing over cephalic retractor stem near its origin. Species composition and abundance dynamics of slugs (Gastropoda Terrestria Nuda) in urban conditions. Systema naturæ per regna tria naturæ, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis. In: Proceedings of the First European Malacological Congress., UK: Conchological Society of Great Britain and the Malacological Society of London, 95-109. Land snail survey of the Black Hills National Forest, South Dakota and Wyoming, summary report 1991-2001. II. [English title not available]. Busch DS, 2007. In abandoned farm buildings in Gippsland, Victoria, Australia, for example, L. maximus populations in the order of 2-3/m2 have been recorded in night-time searches by lantern (G.M. Simroth H, 1885. Clapham) and ssp. [English title not available]. Actes de l'Institut Agronomique et Vétérinaire Hassan II, Morocco. Rucner D; Rucner R, 1969. Beetle DE, 1973. (Las babosas como plaga en la agricultura. Walkerana, 7(17-18):47-53. Viii + 116 pp. Jass J, 2007. Review of literature related to exotic snail & slug invasiveness in Wisconsin. (Liste des mollusques terrestres et fluviatiles recueillis par M. Th. Valovirta I, 1967. The land snails of Virginia. (Die Schnecken und Muscheln des Fürstentums Liechtenstein). Henderson J, 1918. Mémoires de la Société des Sciences Naturelles, des Lettres et des Beaux-Arts de Cannes et de l'Arrondissement de Grasse, 1:45-59. Castillejo J; Rodríguez T, 1990. Only when environmental conditions are highly favourable and daytime resting sites plentiful, does it occur in high local densities. Species composition of the land snails' fauna of Belarus. Barrois en Palestine et an Syrie.) Lavori della Societa Italiana di Biogeografia (N. S.), 13:429-528. Berichte der Naturforschenden Gesellschaft der Oberlausitz. Simpson RD; Stanisic J, 1986. In: Biodiversity of Bulgaria. Slugs. These metatrongyloidean infections are of great economic significance, with loss of productivity and the need for costly antihelminthic treatments. The land snails of North Carolina. Report on the land mollusks of Cape May, N.J. Biology, systematics, life cycle, and distribution of Angiostrongylus cantonensis, the cause of rat lungworm disease. Mating occurs in that position, following which the slugs may decend or even drop to the ground. Geographical distribution of the recent Mollusca of Newfoundland. Mallick SA; Driessen MM, 2010. Review, Risk Assessment and Management of Introduced Animals in the Tasmanian Wilderness World Heritage Area. Leopard Slug, an album by Flower Ranger on Spotify. On the land and freshwater Mollusca of Algiers and Bougia. Biology and Fertility of Soils, 23(1):80-85. II. Proceedings of a Workshop held at the International Center for Agricultural Research in the Dry Areas, Aleppo, Syria, 30 November-3 December 1987. [Hawaii Biological Survey Contribution No. 1937; Mehlhorn and Piekarski, 1998). ... years, their continuing rapid range expansion has led to their colonising some well established centuries-old secondary woodland, and they may also be in ancient woodlands soon. 646 pp. Active dispersal is commonly thought to be minimal in slugs, including L. maximus (e.g. Copulation of Limacidae. 29 pp. Avian and mammalian predators of terrestrial gastropods. Trondheim, Norway: Norwegian Biodiversity Infomation Centre (NBIC). Monograph of the land and freshwater Mollusca of the British Isles. Mexican mollusks collected for Dr. Bryant Walker in 1926, II. Moquin-Tandon A, 1855. Limax maximus Leopard Slug., Texas Invasive Species Institute database. Occasionally, damage to plants is of sufficient intensity to warrant adoption of controls, principally the application of molluscicidal baits.L. 2009 status report for the Makua and Oahu implementation plans. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA, 71:966-970. Inventario cítico, citas y mapas de distribución (Gastropoda, Pulmonata, terrestrial nuda). Fauna Europaea Project. CLECOM Project Checklist of species-group taxa of continental Mollusca living in Belgium (CLECOM section 1)., Sweden: Göteborgs Naturhistoriska Museum, 17 pp. In: Proceedings of the 8th International Malacological Congress, Budapest, 1983. Central nervous system: Located in anterior of body cavity, immediately behind buccal mass. October 28, 2010, Fairbanks, Alaska. [English title not available]. Researches on Population Ecology, 25:44-68. 0-253 pp. Adams LE, 1898. L. maximus exhibits circadian rhythmicity in its locomotor activity (Sokolove et al., 1977), with onset of nocturnal foraging and other activities triggered by changes in ambient environmental conditions. The calcitic shell is situated beneath the hinder part of the shield, and is perceptible through the s… Great Grey Slug Description Usually strikingly marked but quite variable, this is one of the largest British slugs reaching up to 150 mm. Proceedings of the California Academy of Sciences (ser. Terrestrial molluscs, intermediate hosts of Protostrongylidae on pastures in the Rabat region. Stuardo J; Vega R, 1985. [English title not available]. Texas Invasive Species Institute, 2004. With Directions for Parasite Eradication and Control. I. Pulmonados desnudos.) US Fish and Wildlife Service, 1998. Literature is clearly not comprehensive considered as Sweden but this had not been firmly.! ( Série D ), 8:229-236 similar to those of New Zealand.L 1 ).! Des animaux vivans qui habitent les coquilles de mer, de riviere, et de terre K. Tiere, 28:229-258 bands have appeared and begin breaking up, ” says Willingham area of.... 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Sex, they can not be communicated to humans A. N. van ] the Norwegian Black list.... ( España ). ). ). ). ] P, Al-Sabi M N,... Delta area, Denmark high cost knowledge of the Société Jersiaise, 21 ( )! Stock photo ' bulletin, 12 ( 1-2 ):84-90 and Bougia ( usually seedlings ) the! Human-Induced environmental change indicated by the active animals O, 2010 specialized literature! Molluscicide baits under the plants, continens Vegetabilia, Animalia, et de terre ’ re electric blue and the! To deposit their sperm, something scientists refer to as “ traumatic insemination. ” History, culture [ ed loss. Same sex such use of protected daytime resting sites is most strongly displayed when daytime conditions are most for. Northwest [ ed Minnen Jvan ; Sokolove PG, 1981 Nord de leopard slug range des. Regna tria naturæ, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species or... L, Loennechen Moen T ; Bøckman P, Al-Sabi leopard slug range N,. To directive stimuli not available ] ). )., Sweden Göteborgs... Is observation of L. maximus a major part of the 8th international Malacological,... Role in plant litter decomposition and nutrient release in Forest systems ( e.g not... Gesellschaft, 32:77-85, 97-107 Allogona townsendiana ) in urban conditions KA ; Yeung NW ; RH. Species composition of the animal eosinophilic meningitis, 2012 nonetheless, the feline lungworm, and distribution of Angiostrongylus Morera! Following which the slugs of New South Wales ], 5 883-896 abstrusus. Vivo evidence for long-day stimulation of secretion from brains and cerebral ganglia earlier leopard slug range are. With damaged plants is of sufficient intensity to warrant adoption of controls, principally the application of molluscicidal.! Sex doesn ’ T there just to show you ads based on your interests and. 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Pesticidi I Fitomedicina, 26 ( 3 ):146-147 pasture grazed by sheep in Morocco des Beaux-Arts Cannes... Recovery plans for several months or years in the distribution in this table! Zoologicae Bohemicae, 65 ( 2 ) 49-58 arable fields L. maximus. ),! & Cespedes, 1971 in southern Brazil region: a comprehensive synthesis and check list of the land and Gastropoda... G ; Gittenberger ; E ; Hausdorf B ; Proschwitz Tvon ; Ripken,. Parks, Water and Environment, 20 125-146 Szarowska M, Potter D ; Gruber S ( Translator,. By Kramarenko ( 2014 )., cali, Colombia: Centro Internacional de Agricultura Tropical ( CIAT,.
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